Wienkers, Aaron F., Thomas L., & Taylor, J. R.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 926, A7. doi:10.1017/jfm.2021.684
Publication year: 2021


In Part 1 (Wienkers, Thomas & Taylor, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 926, 2021, A6), we described the theory for linear growth and weakly nonlinear saturation of symmetric instability (SI) in the Eady model representing a broad frontal zone. There, we found that both the fraction of the balanced thermal wind mixed down by SI and the primary source of energy are strongly dependent on the front strength, defined as the ratio of the horizontal buoyancy gradient to the square of the Coriolis frequency. Strong fronts with steep isopycnals develop a flavour of SI we call ‘slantwise inertial instability’ by extracting kinetic energy from the background flow and rapidly mixing down the thermal wind profile. In contrast, weak fronts extract more potential energy from the background density profile, which results in ‘slantwise convection.’ Here, we extend the theory from Part 1 using nonlinear numerical simulations to focus on the adjustment of the front following saturation of SI. We find that the details of adjustment and amplitude of the induced inertial oscillations depend on the front strength. While weak fronts develop narrow frontlets and excite small-amplitude vertically sheared inertial oscillations, stronger fronts generate large inertial oscillations and produce bore-like gravity currents that propagate along the top and bottom boundaries. The turbulent dissipation rate in these strong fronts is large, highly intermittent and intensifies during periods of weak stratification. We describe each of these mechanisms and energy pathways as the front evolves towards the final adjusted state, and in particular focus on the effect of varying the dimensionless front strength.